59 Nutrition edit main articles: Vegetarian nutrition and vegan nutrition Western vegetarian diets are typically high in carotenoids, but relatively low in omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12. 60 Vegans can have particularly low intake of vitamin b and calcium if they do not eat enough items such as collard greens, leafy greens, tempeh and tofu (soy). 61 High levels of dietary fiber, folic acid, vitamins c and e, and magnesium, and low consumption of saturated fat are all considered to be beneficial aspects of a vegetarian diet. 62 A well planned vegetarian diet will provide all nutrients in a meat-eater's diet to the same level for all stages of life. 63 Protein edit Protein intake in vegetarian diets is lower than in meat diets but can meet the daily requirements for most people. 64 Studies at Harvard University as well as other studies conducted in the United States, United Kingdom, canada, australia, new zealand and various European countries, confirmed vegetarian diets provide sufficient protein intake as long as a variety of plant sources are available and consumed. 65 Pumpkin seeds, peanut butter, hemp seed, almonds, pistachio nuts, flaxseed, tofu, oats, soybeans, walnuts, are great sources of protein for vegetarians.
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47 48 Vegetarian diets offer lower levels of business saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein, and higher levels of carbohydrates, fibre, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants such as vitamins c and e and phytochemicals. 49 50 "Vegetarian diets can meet guidelines for the treatment of diabetes and some research suggests that diets that are more plant-based reduce risk of type-2 diabetes. Rates of self-reported seventh-day adventists (SDA) were less than half of those of the general population, and, among sda, vegetarians had lower rates of diabetes than non-vegetarians. Among possible explanations for a protective effect of vegetarian diet are the lower bmi of vegetarians and higher fiber intake, both of which improve insulin sensitivity." 51 The relationship between vegetarian diet and bone health remains unclear. According to some studies, a vegetarian lifestyle can be associated with vitamin B 12 deficiency and low bone mineral density. 52 However, a study resumed of vegetarian and non-vegetarian adults in taiwan found no significant difference in bone mineral density between the two groups. 53 Other studies, exploring animal protein's negative effects on bone health, suggest that vegetarians may be less prone to osteoporosis than omnivores, as vegetarian subjects had greater bone mineral density 54 and more bone formation. 55 The China-cornell-Oxford Project, 56 a 20-year study conducted by cornell University, the University of Oxford, and the government of China has established a correlation between the consumption of animal products and a variety of chronic illnesses, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cancers. 57 a british study of almost 10,000 men found that those who gave up meat were almost twice as likely to suffer from depression as people on a conventional balanced diet. The study found that the 350 committed vegetarians studied had a higher average depression score compared to others. 58 a vegetarian diet may help reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease, as the most important dietary link to Alzheimer's disease appears to be meat consumption, with eggs and high-fat dairy also contributing.
42 Possible limitations include varying definitions used of vegetarianism, and the observation of increased risk of lung cancer mortality in those on a vegetarian diet for less than five years. 42 An analysis pooling two large studies found vegetarians in the uk have similar all cause mortality as meat eaters. 43 An older meta analysis found similar results, only finding decreased mortality in vegetarians, pescatarians, and irregular meat eaters in ischemic heart disease, but not from any other cause. 44 Vegetarian diets have been shown to prevent and treat gallstones, cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, dementia, diverticular gift disease, renal disease, hypertension, osteoporosis, cancer, and diabetes. 45 a vegetarian diet which is poorly planned can lead to hyperhomocysteinemia and platelet disorders; this risk may be offset by ensuring sufficient consumption of vitamin B 12 and polyunsaturated fatty acids. 41 The Academy of Nutrition and dietetics and dietitians of Canada have stated that at all stages of life, a properly planned vegetarian diet is "healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provides health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases". 46 Large-scale studies have shown that mortality from ischemic heart disease was 30 lower among vegetarian men and 20 lower among vegetarian women than in non-vegetarians.
Semi-vegetarianism is contested by vegetarian groups, such as the vegetarian Society, which states that vegetarianism excludes all animal flesh. 11 health effects edit On average, vegetarians consume a lower proportion of calories from fat (particularly saturated fatty acids fewer overall calories, measles more fiber, potassium, and vitamin c, than do non-vegetarians. Vegetarians generally have a lower body mass index. These characteristics and other lifestyle factors associated with a vegetarian diet may contribute to the positive health outcomes that have been identified among vegetarians. Dietary guidelines for Americans, 2010 a report issued by the. Department of Agriculture and the. Department of health and Human Services 40 Studies on the health effects of vegetarian diets observe heterogeneous effects on mortality. One review found a decreased overall risk of all cause mortality, cancer (except breast) and cardiovascular disease; 41 however, a meta-analysis found lower risk for ischemic heart disease and cancer but no effect on overall mortality or cerebrovascular disease.
For example, sugars that are whitened with bone char, cheeses that use animal rennet ( enzymes from animal stomach lining gelatin (derived from the collagen inside animals' skin, bones, and connective tissue some cane sugar (but not beet sugar ) and beverages (such as apple. 4 5 6 Individuals sometimes label themselves "vegetarian" while practicing a semi-vegetarian diet, 9 36 37 as some dictionary definitions describe vegetarianism as sometimes including the consumption of fish, 8 or only include mammalian flesh as part of their definition of meat, 8 38 while. 11 In other cases, individuals may describe themselves as "flexitarian". 36 39 These diets may be followed by those who reduce animal flesh consumed as a way of transitioning to a complete vegetarian diet or for health, ethical, environmental, or other reasons. Semi-vegetarian diets include: Macrobiotic diet consisting mostly of whole grains and beans, but may sometimes include fish. Pescetarianism, which includes fish and possibly other forms of seafood. Pollo -pescetarianism, which includes poultry and fish, or "white meat" only. Pollotarianism, which includes chicken and possibly other poultry.
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34 jain vegetarianism also includes dairy, but excludes the eggs, honey, and root vegetables. Macrobiotic diets consist mostly of whole grains and beans. Lacto vegetarianism includes dairy products but not eggs. Ovo vegetarianism includes eggs but not dairy products. Ovo-lacto vegetarianism (or lacto-ovo vegetarianism) includes animal products such as eggs, milk, and honey. Sattvic diet (also known as yogic diet a plant-based diet which may also include dairy and honey, but excludes eggs, red lentils, durian, mushrooms, alliums, blue cheeses, fermented foods or sauces, and alcoholic drinks.
Coffee, black or green tea, chocolate, nutmeg, and any other type of stimulant (including excessively pungent spices) are sometimes excluded, as well. Veganism excludes all animal flesh and by-products, such as milk, honey (not always 35 and eggs, as well as items refined or manufactured through any such product, such as animal-tested baking soda or white sugar refined with bone char. Raw veganism includes only fresh and uncooked fruit, nuts, seeds, and vegetables. Food must not be heated above 118 F (48 C) to be considered "raw". Usually, raw vegan food is only ever "cooked" with a food dehydrator at low temperatures. Within the " ovo- " groups, there are many who refuse to consume fertilized eggs (with balut being an extreme example however, such distinction is typically not specifically addressed. Some vegetarians also avoid products that may use animal ingredients not included in their labels or which use animal products in their manufacturing.
27 Following the Christianization of the roman Empire in late antiquity, vegetarianism practically disappeared from Europe, as it did elsewhere, except in India. 28 several orders of monks in medieval Europe restricted or banned the consumption of meat for ascetic reasons, but none of them eschewed fish. 29 Moreover, the medieval definition of "fish" included such animals as seals, porpoises, dolphins, barnacle geese, puffins, and beavers. 30 Vegetarianism re-emerged during the renaissance, 31 becoming more widespread in the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1847, the first Vegetarian Society was founded in the United Kingdom; 32 Germany, the netherlands, and other countries followed. In 1886, the vegetarian colony nueva germania was founded in Paraguay, though its vegetarian aspect would prove short-lived.
33 :345358 The International Vegetarian Union, an association of the national societies, was founded in 1908. In the western world, the popularity of vegetarianism grew during the 20th century as a result of nutritional, ethical, and—more recently—environmental and economic concerns. Varieties edit roadside café near Kullu, india see also: Semi-vegetarianism Comparison of vegetarian and semi-vegetarian diets There are a number of vegetarian diets that exclude or include various foods: Buddhist vegetarianism. Different Buddhist traditions have differing teachings on diet, which may also vary for ordained monks and nuns compared to others. Many interpret the precept "not to kill" to require abstinence from meat, but not all. In taiwan, su vegetarianism excludes not only all animal products but also vegetables in the allium family (which have the characteristic aroma of onion and garlic onion, garlic, scallions, leeks, chives, or shallots. Fruitarianism and jain vegetarianism permit only fruit, nuts, seeds, and other plant matter that can be gathered without harming the plant.
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23 It was through this portrayal that Pythagoras was best known to English-speakers throughout the early modern period 23 and, prior to the coinage of the word "vegetarianism vegetarians were referred to in English as "Pythagoreans". 23 Vegetarianism was also practiced about six centuries later in another instance (30 bce 50 CE) in the northern Thracian region by the moesi tribe (who inhabited present-day serbia and aide Bulgaria feeding themselves on honey, milk, and cheese. 24 In Indian culture, vegetarianism has been closely connected with the attitude of nonviolence towards animals (called ahimsa in India) for millennia and was promoted by religious groups and philosophers. 25 The ancient Indian work of Tirukkural explicitly and unambiguously emphasizes shunning meat and non-killing. 26 Chapter 26 of the tirukkural, particularly couplets 251260, deals exclusively on vegetarianism or veganism. 26 Among the hellenes, egyptians, and others, vegetarianism had medical or ritual purification purposes. Labeling is mandatory in India to distinguish vegetarian products (green) from non-vegetarian products (brown).
14 History edit main article: History of vegetarianism Vegetarianism in ancient India india is a strange country. People do not kill any living creatures, do not keep pigs and fowl, and do not sell live cattle. — faxian, 4th/5th century ce chinese pilgrim to India 17 The earliest record of vegetarianism comes from Indus Valley civilization as early as the 7th century bce, 18 inculcating tolerance towards all living beings. 19 20 Vegetarianism was also practiced in ancient Greece and the earliest reliable evidence for vegetarian theory and practice in Greece dates from the 6th century. The Orphics, a religious movement spreading essay in Greece at that time, also practiced and promoted vegetarianism. 21 It is unclear whether the Greek religious teacher Pythagoras actually advocated vegetarianism, 22 but later writers presented him as doing. 22 A fictionalized portrayal of Pythagoras appears in book xv of ovid 's Metamorphoses, 23 in which he advocates a form of strict vegetarianism.
vegetarianism. 8 9 A pescetarian diet has been described as "fish but no other meat". 10 The common-use association between such diets and vegetarianism has led vegetarian groups such as the vegetarian Society to state that diets containing these ingredients are not vegetarian, because fish and birds are also animals. 11 Contents Etymology edit The term "vegetarian" has been in use since 1839 to refer to what was previously described as a "vegetable diet". The word is commonly believed to be a compound of vegetable and the suffix -arian (as in agrarian ). According to john davis, "vegetarian" probably did not directly derive from the latin word vegetus. 12 The term was popularized with the foundation of the vegetarian Society in Manchester in 1847, 13 although it may have appeared in print before 1847. The earliest occurrences of the term seem to be related to Alcott house —a school on the north side of Ham Common, london —which was opened in July 1838 by james pierrepont Greaves. 14 15, it was known as a concordium, or Industry harmony college, from which time the institution began to publish its own pamphlet entitled The healthian, which provides some of the earliest appearances of the term "vegetarian".
There are variations of the diet as well: an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet includes both eggs book and dairy products, an ovo-vegetarian diet includes eggs but not dairy products, and a lacto-vegetarian diet includes dairy products but not eggs. A vegan diet excludes all animal products, including eggs and dairy. Some vegans also avoid other animal products such as beeswax, leather or silk clothing, and goose-fat shoe polish. Packaged and processed foods, such as cakes, cookies, candies, chocolate, yogurt, and marshmallows, often contain unfamiliar animal ingredients, so may be a special concern for vegetarians due to the likelihood of such additions. 5 Often, prior to purchase or consumption, vegetarians will scrutinize products for animal-derived ingredients. 5 Vegetarians' feelings vary with regard to these ingredients. For example, while some vegetarians may be unaware of animal-derived rennet 's role in the production of cheese, and may therefore unknowingly consume the product, 6 7 other vegetarians may not take issue with its consumption.
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This article is about the diet for human summary beings. For plant-only diets in animals, see herbivore. For types of vegetarian food, see vegetarian cuisine. For other uses, see, vegetarian (disambiguation). Vegetarianism /vɛdʒɪtɛəriənɪzəm/ is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat ( red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter. 1 2 4, vegetarianism may be adopted for various reasons. Many people object to eating meat out of respect for sentient life. Such ethical motivations have been codified under various religious beliefs, as well as animal rights advocacy. Other motivations for vegetarianism are health-related, political, environmental, cultural, aesthetic, economic, or personal preference.